When does a game ends in draw

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chess rules :: draw
the pieces | notation | check and checkmate | castling | draw game | stalemate

Chess draw

There are times when neither of both players can win the game, so the game ends at equality. This means that the game ends in a draw (a tie). The game could end in a draw even if one side has a big advantage over the other side, an advantage that would normally help him win the game.

Let's analyze the situations in which a game ends in a draw. It's very important to know what are the situations in which a draw can occur.

1. Draw by agreement: Both sides come to an agreement over the fact that the game is a draw. This usually happens during the end game when the result of the game is more easily anticipated and both players realize that neither of them will win the game no matter what happens.

2. The fifty move rule: When a player has its turn to move and he indicates that there have been made 50 moves without any piece being captured or without any pawn being moved.

3. Threefold repetition: When a player has its turn to move announces that he is making a move that will result in a position that repeats itself the third time. The position is repeating if the same pieces occupies the same squares they occupied at a past position.

4. Perpetual check: Usually the weak side uses this maneuver to avoid losing the game. Perpetual check takes place when the disadvantaged side has the possibility of checking his opponent an unlimited numbers of times and does so. This eventually leads to draw by threefold repetition as shown in the previous rule. To understand how this may happen just take a look at the following game :

Perpetual check example. Timan-Smislov, Interzonal, 1982 draw example You can see that after White moves the rook to c8 the two rooks will be exchanged; after that the pawn at c6 will inevitable be promoted. Black however has an ace up his sleeve: 1... Qc2-e4
1...Qc2-e4+ 2. Kg2-h2 Qe4-c2 3. Kh2-g1 Qc2-b1+ 4. Kg1-g2 Qb1-e4 5. f2-f3 Qe4-c2 6. Kg2-f1 Qc2-d1
And now the white king can't avoid being checked by the black queen. Black has possibility of perpetual check. Just look at how the game might have continued:
draw example 7. Kf1-f2 Qd1-d2+ 8. Kf2-f1 Qd2-d1+ 9. Kf1-f2 Qd1-d2+ 10. Kf2-g1 Avoids game draw by threefold repetition.
11... Qd2-e1+ 12. Kg1-g2 Qe1-e2+ 13. Kg2-h1 Again avoids game draw by threefold repetition.
13...Qe2-f1+ 14. Kh1-h2 Qf1-f2+ 15. Kh2-h1 Qf2-f1+ 16. Kh1-h2 Qf1-f2+ 17. Kh2-h1 Qf2-f1+
And now the game is drawn by threefold repetition.

5. Stalemate: When a player has its turn to move, his king is not in check and has no possibility of moving either of his pieces because they are all locked in their position. The pieces may be locked in their position for various reasons :

6. When there is insufficient material to checkmate. That means that neither sides has any resources of mating the opponents king. This only happens in a few situations :